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“People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.” – Albert Einstein

The measurement of time is not something that most people spend much of their day thinking about. However, the truth is that time accuracy is extremely important and used globally to coordinate vast and complex networks, electrical power distribution, communications, and transportation throughout the world. In fact, from time precision, navigational accuracy is derived.

In 1967, at the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures, a very significant decision was made which would go on to forever affect the keeping of time as we measure it and know it. At this conference, the definition of a second was changed from orbital time to atomic time; or more specifically, the definition of a second changed from:

1 second = 1/31,556,925.9747 of one earth orbit around the sun


1 second = 9,192,631,770 oscillations of the cesium-133 atom

In other words, the world’s timekeeping system, since 1967, is no longer grounded on an astronomical basis.

That wouldn’t concern you if you believed that time was a constant. Unfortunately, Albert Einstein showed us over 100 years ago in 1905 with his Special Theory of Relativity that time is a physical property of the universe and subject to change based on the observer’s own time, mass, gravity and velocity.

This can be observed in the examination of identical atomic clocks on opposite sides of the world; one at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado and the other at the Royal Observatory in Greenwhich, England. They are both considered accurate to better than one-millionth of a second per year. Although these two atomic clocks are identical, the clock in Boulder runs five-millionths of a second faster a year than its twin clock in Greenwich. The only difference between the two clocks is that the one in Boulder is 5,400 feet above sea level while the one in Greenwich is only 80 feet above sea level. Which one is correct? They both are! The difference is caused by the fact that time is different due to the change in gravity.

Einstein’s discoveries regarding relativity were scientifically verified in 1971 when J.C. Hafele and Richard Keating sent 4 atomic clocks around the world. The clocks on the eastward trip returned 59 nanoseconds behind the ones remaining at rest at the U.S. National Observatory in Washington, DC. The clocks sent westward were 273 nanoseconds ahead. Accounting for the Earth’s rotation and other gravitational effects, this was precisely what Einsteins formula’s predicted.

Despite the overwhelming belief that atomic time is more accurate and favorable than orbital time, given these and various other experiments, we are now challenged with the reality of problems regarding atomic time. For instance, if time is slowing down, which the Law of Entropy dictates, then whatever is slowing down is also going to affect the atomic clock’s rate of decay and thus, it’s precision.. In other words, it would be like using a rubber ruler to take measurements. If the ruler is not fixed, but can be stretched, you can never be sure of it’s accuracy. Another way of thinking about it is trying to measure the growth through height of a twin based on the other twin. If you are using one to measure the other, since they are both growing at the same rate, it might look like there is no change in height when in reality both twins actually grew 5 inches. However, since you were using one to measure the other, your data will be incorrect.

If the atomic clocks are “correct”, the orbital speeds of Mercury, Venus and Mars are increasing.

If the gravitational constant is truly constant, atomic vibrations and the speed of light are decreasing.

Regarding the heavenly bodies in general, Scripture tells us that God created the Sun, Moon and stars to give light (brightening the utter darkness of the night sky) and to assist mankind (Genesis 1:14-15, etc.). One of the reasons that God made the Moon, solar system, stars and orbital rotation was to provide a way for us to distinguish the passage of time (days, months and years) and predict the coming of seasons. Without them, the job of keeping time and navigation would have been far more difficult. We learn from history that from the earliest days, ancient peoples used the movement of stars in producing their calendars and finding their way across great distances.

In conclusion, if a planet’s orbital speed increased it would violate the Law of Conservation of Energy. However, if the atomic clocks are correct, the gravitational “constant” should vary, yet no such change has been detected. Therefore, orbital time is favored, just as God designed from the beginning.